Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The Corrections Corporation of America (CCA), which is essentially the Enron of the private prison industry, has long touted private prisons as an alternative to government-owned prisons. Indeed, CCA has set forth three reasons justifying the creation of private prisons for federal inmates: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost Effectiveness. Private prisons are less expensive to operate and will save the federal government millions of dollars. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Safety. Private prisons are effectively protect inmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ safety. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Humane Treatment. Private prisons are modern facilities that provide humane treatment to inmates. Studies have shown that private prisons achieve none of these goals, and the reason is simple: private prisons operate under a fundamentally different regulatory structure that alters the choices -- and motives Ã¢â¬â of its participants. Indeed, unlike their federal counterparts, private prisons operate in a market economy where maximizing profits is vital to sustainability and thus a driving factor in corporate decision-making. Under basic economic theory, when operational costs exceed current and future estimates, corporations must identify ways in which to reduce such costs and therefore increase profitability. This is precisely what happened in the private prison context. Corporations such as CCA often underestimate the cost of operating private prisons in a manner that would increase safety and treat inmates more humanely. As a result, operators of private prisons made the deliberate choiceShow MoreRelatedThe Between Private And Public Prisons942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbe tween private and public prisons. While private prisons have been useful, I believe that it does not have an advantage over public prisons with regard to rehabilitation and reoffending rates of offenders. Private prisons were first implemented in order to combat the effects of overcrowding and the increasing cost of maintaining public prisons (Mennicken, 2013; Jones Newburn, 2005). While private prisons have been successful in that regard, there are various other concerns, ranging from prison andRead MoreThe Between Public And Private Prisons1824 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdefectiveness. Being governed by humans, there Ã¢â¬âneverthelessÃ¢â¬â exists an imbalance due to the natural imperfections of the mind. One particular subject matter is the deliberate breaking of moral standards surrounding the prison system. Specifically, the private prison sector. These private prison corporations indulge in uncommon for-profit business practices to strategically maximize their yields in undisclosed manners. An obvious lack of transparency. So, could their practices be so vile for the need ofRead MorePublic Facilities And Private Prisons1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Prison is an institut ion designed to securely to house inmates who have been convicted of crimes. The United States holds the records for having the largest inmate population residing within the walls of the correctional system. The inflation in correctional spending and the largest prison population have impelled lawmakers and the government to look toward the privatization of prisons. Privatization of prisons is the use of private sector or corporation in financing, constructing, andRead MoreEssay about The Public-Private Prison Debate2326 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCalifornia is suffering from a crisis in the prison system. Its facilities are operating at double capacity and grossly deficient medical care is the cause of at least one inmate death per week (Wood, 2008, para. 2). Because of this need for reform, the federal government is stepping in to direct the state prisonÃ¢â¬â¢s operating procedure. Although the financial choices of each state should be free from federal control, the federal govern ment is still known to put pressure on states to make decisionsRead MoreThe Prison Industrial Complex Is The Economic Interrelation Between Private Prisons And Various Public1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe prison-industrial complex is the economic interrelation between private prisons and various public and private job sectors that have become dependent on the expansion of the private prison system. A partial list of these sectors includes construction, pharmaceuticals, and law enforcement, including probation and parole. The prison-industrial complex also runs a cheap inmate labor force for various corporations. Approximately 2,266,800 adults are currently imprisoned in America. In addition toRead MoreThe Use Of Private Prisons For Federal Inmates1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhase Out Use of Private Prisons for Federal Inmates. This was an article title created by Charlie Savage, a Pulitzer Prize winner and correspondent for the New York Times in Washington on August 18, 2016. Savage wrote how the Obama administration would begin to phase out the use of private run prisons to hold inmates. This was ultimately due to the research done on the quality of life for inmates, the safety of inmates and prison employees, and the security of private run prisons. In the articleRead MorePrivate Prisons : Are They The Criminal Justice Systems? Savior Or Destroyer?1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrivate Prisons: Are They the Criminal Justice SystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ Savior or Destroyer? As of 2005, there are over 107 privately operated secure facilities contracting to hold adult criminal offenders in the United States (Seiter, p. 164) According to Richard P. Seiter (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"A private correctional facility is any correctional facility operated by a nongovernmental agency and usually in a for-profit manner that contracts with a governmental entity to provide security, housing, and programs for offendersÃ¢â¬ Read MorePrivatization Of A Capitalist Society1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA criminal is easier to deal with when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re found dead. A living criminal must be tried in court of their peers, provided legal representation, and then must have whatever prison time they receive - if any - paid for by the Government. Meanwhile a dead criminal just needs to be acknowledged then buried. When it comes to dealing with live criminals, a government finds itself in a position where it must provide for the safety and wellbeing of members of society that are often ignored, which canRead MoreIs Prison Privatization Really a Long Term Fix? Essay1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrison Privatization is a term used for which local, state and federal correction facilities hire companies from the private sector to run prisons and provide prison-related services. Some private companies are contracted only to provide things such as medical care, counseling, food services, and maintenance within publicly owned jails and prisons. Today, more and more private companies are being contracted to not only design and build, but also to operate new jails and prisons on both the stateRead MorePrivatization Within The Criminal Justice System Essay1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespermeates every level of the criminal justice system, from incarceration to probation. Many states have turned to private institutions in an attempt shed operating costs, while also increasing effectiveness throughout the criminal justice system. These acts can include anything from providing treatm ent programs to full blown management of the entire prison system. Overcrowding at prisons and the rising costs associated with them has led many states to turn to some form of privatization within the criminal
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Velocity is the time rate of change of position of an object in a particular direction. Velocity along a straight line is known as linear velocity and is commonly measured by meters per second (m/s). Since both speed and direction are implemented in the measurement velocity the direction must be given. Velocity is a vector quantity, which includes magnitude or speed and a direction into account. An object doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to move in a straight-line path to have linear velocity. Instantaneous velocity of any point of an object undergoing circular motion is a vector quantity. When an object is forced to follow a curved path it has instantaneous linear velocity at any point of its travel. Velocity is calculated by dividing the time it took to travel the distance into the distance it traveled or V=d/t (Rusk, Dr. Rogers D. (2014). Velocity. In AccessScience. McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.accessscience.com/content/velocity/729500) Acceleration is the time rate of change in velocity. Instantaneous acceleration is the limit of the rate of change in velocity to the time taken to change velocity. When the acceleration is constant, the average acceleration and the instantaneous acceleration are equal. When unbalanced forced act on an object, the objects will undergo acceleration. A force is the influence on an object, which causes it to accelerate. If the object doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change direction the object will have a constant acceleration. Acceleration isShow MoreRelatedEssay Sir Isaac Newtons Three Laws of Motion1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWe have all heard the story of the apple falling on Newtons head while he was sitting against the tree, thus giving him the sudden idea for the Universal Law of Gravity. This, as I am sure most of us know, is not really what happened. A more accurate version would probably be, Newton observed an apple falling from a tree and started contemplating the physics of the apples fall. The acceleration experienced by the apple, which started at zero when hanging in the tree, then increasedRead MorePhysics : The Sport Of Equestrian Show Jumping1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJumping. The sport of equestrian show jumping requires a connection between horse and rider, and an understanding of how the horse gets from point A to point B. Many components of equestrian jumping take a lot of technique and courage, as well as applied physics. NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s three laws of motion are portrayed through different components of riding, such as the horse and riderÃ¢â¬â¢s balance, jump and even fall. Lunging a horse is a method used by a majority of riders to help tire and relax their horse beforeRead MoreSir Isaac Newton: Standing on the Shoulders of Galileo and Aristotle1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswidespread acceptance of Sir Isaac NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s models and laws may often be taken for granted, but this has not always been so. Throughout history, scientists and philosophers have built on each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s theories to create improved and often revolutionary models. Although Newton was neither the first nor the last to bring major innovations to society, he was one of the most notable ones; many of his contributions are still in use today. With the formulation of his laws of motion, Sir Isaac Newton contributedRead MoreWho Cares Anyway1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesName: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: Uniform Circular Motion Vocabulary: acceleration, centripetal acceleration, centripetal force, NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s first law, NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s second law, uniform circular motion, vector, velocity Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. A boy is whirling a yo-yo above his head in a counter-clockwise direction. At the exact moment shown at left, he lets go of the string. In which directionRead MoreThe Physics Of Physical Therapy1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestasks that physical therapists perform is the various forms of therapeutic exercise that are used to increase strength and endurance to improve coordination and functional movement for activities of daily living and to increase and maintain range of motion (APTA History). Some of the first known practices of physical therapy are from the early Greek and Romans. They had writings that said both the sun and water were beneficial. The Chinese, Persians, Egyptians, and Greeks said exercise and massageRead MoreThe Effect Of Projectile Motion On The Force Of Gravity1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 1) Projectile motion: Projectile motion is a form of motion where an object (called a projectile) is thrown near the earth s surface, and it moves along a curved path only under the force of gravity. The only force of significance that acts on the object is gravity, which acts in a negative direction to cause a downward acceleration. When a ball is thrown into the air at an angle, it will become a projectile, and it will move through the air at a constant horizontal velocity. At the same timeRead MoreEssay on The Life of Sir Isaac Newton 1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to the text in Newton (1642), his theory that is described in NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s law is that gravitational force depends on the mass of each object. His doubt wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t about the fact that gravity existed, but whether it was what was keeping the moon in its orbit. He figured that, if the force was to be decreased he would be able to calculate the Moons orbital period. He figured that this was the same force responsible for other motio ns in the orbit and with his hypothesis; he decided to call this theoryRead More Physics of Bicycles Essay978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbicycling is no exception to the physical laws of Mother Nature. Friction is a resistive force that always acts in a direction that is opposite to the motion of a body. Frictional forces are dependent on two components; the coefficient of friction and the normal force. Friction = (Ã µ)(n) There are two different types of frictional coefficients, static and kinetic. The coefficient of static friction is the frictional force that must be overcome before any motion commences. It is caused by the minusculeRead MoreSuccessful Free Throw Shooting1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe whole motion of the shot. Which is why I decided to do my thesis on the analytical mechanics of the free throw. Throughout this paper I will be discussing about non-linear ordinary differential equations, angular velocity, the reaction force, velocity, and the contact point extension of the elbow motion measurements hyperextension on the wrist,Ã¢â¬ ¦. By understanding the relationship between work, power and energy we can improve performance of a free throw. All these components of powerRead MoreA Brief Note On Tennis Hit 3229 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesmuscles length. Gastrocnemius Contraction. Isometric contraction Ã¢â¬â working without a change to the muscles length. TENNIS (PART TWO) There are multiple components of fitness that are demanded of tennis players, these components can be either health related or skill related. The health related components of fitness essential for ensuring success in tennis include; cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. Cardiorespiratory endurance is
Morrie starts to speak about one particular letter. It was from a lady who lost a parent when she was an adolescent and how she attended a group, which provided therapy for people who went through the same situation. Morrie then breaks down crying during the interview and conveys how when his mother died when he was a child, he wishes he would have had a group assisted people like they did for her. The reason why he said that is because he was so lonely when his mother died. During a flashback Morrie reveals for the second time that his mother had passed away, but instead this time he goes into detail. Morrie was only 8 years of age when he lost his mother. He was actually the one to break the news to his family. MorrieÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state about his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death was a tragic one. Albom reveals that during Morries motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness, Morrie pretended that his mother wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually sick, and how Morrie thought that that would make her sickness go away. As the months had progressed Morrie had withered and Mitch began to become more involved because he wanted to hold onto what little that he could of his dear professor. On the last day of Mitch and Morries weekly meetings Morrie was finally ready to say good-bye and had ended the thesis. During the time of Morries death Mitch had came to the realization that Morrie waited and passed on a Tuesday, which was the day both got to share their most intimate thoughts with one another. This paper will out line the journey of both men and how they grew through this journey. Who Do you think got more out of their Tuesday meetings ? Mitch or Morrie? In what way? How do you think each would answer the question? In this selection I feel that Mitch got more out of their Tuesday meetings. Towards the end of this novel Mitch comes to the realization that Ã¢â¬Å"it is never too late in lifeÃ¢â¬ . (Albom , 1997, p. 146) Through his talks with Morrie he came to realize that family is the most important aspect of life because that is all you have at the end of the day. Morrie talks to Mitch about how we becomes so entranced with having an abundance of friends, but in the end the only friends that are there are our loved ones. They are the ones who come to help in the time of need, they will be the only ones there to hold your head or wipe your bottom. Morrie talks about a dear old friend and how forgiveness is an important aspect of life. During a time of need Morrie though his friend would comfort him and be there for his ill wife. Although Morries friend did not come to his or his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s aid he felt remorse for sometime. Later Morrie goes on to tell Mitch how awful he felt when he had found out that his beloved friend had passed away from cancer. This story opened Mitches eyes. Later in the novel the reader sees MitchesÃ¢â¬â¢ attempt to rekindle his distant relationship with his on brother who was battling cancer in Europe. Mitch took Morries lessons to heart, although in the moment Mitch may not have seen it the same as Morrie, he came to realize that this man on his death bed had the power to see the beauty in all and that life had no meaning without the sheer surrender to loving others and not giving into what society tells us we need to be happy. In asking Mitch or Morrie who was able to get more out of the Tuesday meetings, both would say the other. Mitch would say that Morrie was able to acquire more form the meetings because it gave him a sense of purpose as opposed to just withering away in his bed and simply just dieing. These meetings gave Morrie something to look forward to because that was his passion to impart knowledge on others. Through Morries journey he found to appreciate the smaller things in life. In the novel Morrie explains to Mitch that now that he is dieing he felt closer to people. (Albom , 1997, p. 44) Morrie evaluated his position and would engage Mitch in asking Ã¢â¬Å"death was an equalizer, the thing that made strangers feel for one anotherÃ¢â¬ ? Albom , 1997, p. 44) Through out the journey Morrie became more self away about his physical state but till the last day embraced his position in a positive way. Had this question been asked to Morrie, he would have probably stated that Mitch got the most out of the Tuesday meetings. Although Mitch had different views than Morrie he was able to appreciate Morr ies wisdom. At the end the reader can see that Mitch took these meetings too heart. For example, during a discussion on family Morrie talked to Mitch about how important family was in a time of need because there would be no one else to help you. Morrie tells Mitch that we grow up in a Ã¢â¬Å" Culture that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t encourage one to think about such things till you die. Were so wrapped up with egotistical things. Ã¢â¬ (Albom , 1997, p. 55) This really hits home with Mitch because before the strike at his job he was completely consumed with it. He did this so he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to deal with reality. In this end of these meetings Mitch comes to realize what Morrie had been talking about the whole time. Mitch, although unsuccessful at first, tried reaching out to his ill brother who wanted nothing to do with him. The talks with Morrie really gave Mitch the strength to understand his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s position. In the end Mitch tried a different approach by telling his brother that it was okay to be distant but would like to hear from his only brother and be able to hold him near as long as possible in the present not just after he dies. (Albom , 1997, p. 146) Mitch learned to appreciate the now and that Ã¢â¬Å"its never too late in lifeÃ¢â¬ . (Albom , 1997, p. 146) As he visits with Morrie continued, Mitch explored some other cultures and religions and how each views death. Discuss these and others that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve studied. Throughout Mitches journey with Morrie he came to explore other religions and how they viewed death. The first religion Mitch talks about was a North America Artic tribe. He talks bout how they believe Ã¢â¬Å"That all things on earth have a soul that exists in a miniature form of the body that holds it, so a deer has a tiny deer inside it and when that deer dies the tiny form lives onÃ¢â¬ . (Albom , 1997, p. 89) It is almost like a spirit, this was also something that Morrie stressed that even when he was gone Mitch would still be able to hear MorriesÃ¢â¬â¢ sprit speaking to him. The second religion Mitch came to explore was a tribe in the South American rainforest. This tribe was called Desana, they saw Ã¢â¬Å"The world as a fixed quantity of energy that flows between all creatures. Therefore every breath must engender a deathÃ¢â¬ . (Albom , 1997, p. 108) Although Morrie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really touch on births coming out of the death it still gave Mitch a sense of hope that something good could come out of something such as death. In my life journey I have explored several religions and have come to the realization that if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a good person then good things will come to you. There is not necessarily a notion of an after life or Ã¢â¬Å"heaven and hellÃ¢â¬ parse. In my journey through Catholicism and Christianity there is this belief to follow the bible and the commandments, interim one will be judged in judgment day and either ascend into heaven or hell. This almost gives me the sense of fear, there are certain things you cannot do, some simply as not marking your body or the repercussion is a place of forever chattering of teeth and eternal burning in a lake of fire. These two religions have the basic principals of one another but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily agree that people will go to these places, it is almost as if they are metaphors because inevitable we all become dust. This is where spirituality comes into play like Mitch had outlined in the novel with the North American Artic tribe where they believed the sprit lived on after death. There is some similarity to Christianity and Catholicism. Another religion that I have come across is one predominately derive from Hinduism and the reincarnation cycle of life. In some Hindu religions there is this belief in Karma. Karma can be defined as ones actions defining their fate. (Webster, 2004, p. 397) There is this belief that when one dies pending on the things they have done in their lives they will come back to earth in a different position perhaps one of status perhaps not. For example, if a woman comes back to earth as a male then she has done very well in her former life because she had obtained the ultimate status in life. The patriarchal system is thus reinforced in this belief. I can remember a time in my life where I had been introduced to a subset of Hinduism called Sant Mat, which too believes in reincarnation and karma. (Sant Mat Meditation on Inner Light and Sound Sant Baljit Singh) The underlying theme in this religion is that there is a sprit that continues to live even after death has come upon us. We hear about religion all day and every day, it is in the media and plastered all over our American culture it almost seems inescapable. In the end we all turn to dust and through the novel Tuesdays with Morrie, Morrie gives Mitch a sense hat death is not a bad thing. Through MitchesÃ¢â¬â¢ journey in exploring other religions he finds that death can be a positive because inevitably the sprit is what lives on. This becomes evident to Mitch when Morrie tell him to still come and visit his grave and continue the conversations. In the conclusion Mitch admits that during the funeral he could hear Morrie and that made all the difference to Mitch. Discuss I ntersectionality in relation to both Mitch and Morrie. The author in terms of Intersectionality was highly privileged. To being he was a heterosexual, white, male, who had worked in the entertainment industry. He was married to his wife Jeanine, and would constantly work until his company went on strike. Although in the novel Morrie talks about how money is worthless because it doe not give you a sense of meaning, this was a form of privilege for Mitch because he was able to continually fly out to see Morrie in his last days. Another privilege of MitchesÃ¢â¬â¢ was that he was an able body. He was able to get up and feed and clothe him self and even go to the bathroom, which he later found that he was taking it for granted. In some ways Mitch was unprivileged because he had lost his job at the time, and he was younger than Morrie. As for Morrie he too was a privileged heterosexual male, who has two sons and was a college professor. In this book Morrie talks about the sixties where he would aid the students in protest, this was a form of privilege to be able to stand up and speak out without sever repercussions. As for Morrie being unprivileged, he was a withering older man. His illness rendered him unable to fulfill basic necessities on his own such as going to the restroom or feeding himself. Although this is a form of non-privilege Morrie discusses how he saw this as privilege because he had returned to a state where he was basically being pampered as a young child. He goes on to tell Mitch that he is lucky because he had become a child again which is something that people often wish about. (Albom , 1997, p. 90-94) Your overall reaction to the book. As you read the book identify your feelings, thoughts, and connections you made along the way. At the beginning of this book I adamantly was bored because the author talked about his life in the moment and how it was beginning to come rashing down. It just made me think well okay we all have those problems. I could somewhat identify with the character in being so wrapped up in work just to escape reality. In his seemingly down spiral I felt his pain, loosing a job is never easy having to come to terms with your lively hood being swept from underneath you. As the novel progressed I became more enticed and did not want to put t he book down. In the first audiovisual, when Morrie was introduced it was a great story to an amazing man, although I was unable to recognize this till the very end of the story. Morrie talked about his disease and how he had come to terms with death. Upon Mitch finishing his long lost favorite professor it made me think about the people in my life that I have lost touched with and I began to wonder what it would be like to have one more sit down with them. I was inspired my Mitches encounters with Morrie, and how Morrie viewed his current physical state. The one thing that stood out to me the most was during one of the Tuesday meetings where Mitch asks Morrie about regret. Morrie enlighten Mitch that he has had no regrets and does not wish to be young again. Morrie states that if one stays twenty-two then he will forever be that ignorant the more you grow the more you come to understand. (Albom , 1997, p. 92) He later goes on to discuss that when people regret a certain age and wish they could go back to it they have not found meaning in their lives. They are still searching for something to make them whole. Morrie felt in his age that he had found the meaning of life and was ready to take on death. This was powerful to me because we all too often see many people fearing death and are apologetic and forgiving in their time last days. To see this man so positive and embracing of death was powerful. In conclusion I was overcome by tears when Morrie passed away for one reason, as soon as Mitch realized the day Morrie had passed it was almost like the trumpets had sounded and Mitch finally got it. Morrie passed on a Tuesday and had though back and knew Morrie had waited because he had found the meetings to be meaningful in his time of death. This was an amazing, inspiring story and I hope to share with many others in the future because it gave me a sense that death is not to be feared but to be embraced and as Mitch learned that Ã¢â¬Å"It is never too lateÃ¢â¬ .
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Psychology: Depth Of Processing And The Self Reference Effect Introduction There have been many experiments done on depth of processing and the self reference effect. The Depth of Processing model of memory maintains that how deep something is encoded into a person's memory depends on using certain types of processing. This relates to the self reference effect because it is believed that people have the tendency to remember something better when they can relate it to themselves. People who can personally relate to something have the tendency to embed it deeper into their memory. Craik and Tulving did a series of experiments on the depth of processing model. They had participants use a series of processing methods to encode words at different levels; shallow, moderate, and deep. The subjects were shown a series of words and ask questions about the words that would provide a yes or no response. At the shallow level they were asked questions about whether or not the word was written in capital letters. At the moderate level of processing, the subject was asked questions as to whether or not two words rhymed. Finally, the subjects were asked about words in sentences and whether or not they fit. This was the deep level of processing. After participants had completed the task they were then given a surprise recognition test with the words that they were just asked questions on (target words) and then words that they have never seen before (distraction words). The results of the experiment showed that people remembered the words better that were at deeper level of processing (Craik and Tulving 1975). Although there was some criticisms about the above experiment, Craik and Tulving performed more experiments each time refining the D.O.P. model. There were thoughts that the structural tasks were easier and not as much time had to be spent on them therefore people did not have as long to look at those words and could not study them like the other tasks. Craik and Tulving then made the structural task take equally as long as the other tasks. The results remand the same as the previous experiments. Craik and Tulving also originally started with five tasks, but then narrowed it down to three to avoid a ceiling effect. The self-referent task was later added to model by Rogers. Palmere, Benton, Glover, and Ronning (1983) did a series of experiments continuing the research on the depth of processing model. They used paragraphs and within the paragraph there were sentences that were supported and then ones that were not. After the subjects were through reading all the paragraphs, they were then given a recognition test on the information in the paragraph. The results of this experiment showed that the subjects remember more information about the sentences which were supported with other information rather the ones that stand alone. This supports to the depth of processing because according to this experiment people remember information that had more detail which would require more thinking which would in turn encode the information at a much deeper level. The deeper information is encode people are more likely able to recall the information. Another experiment was done by Bower and Karlin (1974) which tested the depth of processing model on memory fue faces. They used college student pictures out yearbooks that were put onto slides. They then showed the slide to the subjects who were asked questions. The subjects were then ask to look at a serious of slides and asked whether or not that person had appeared in the original group of slides shown. The results of this experiment showed that when a person had a more detailed response about a person, the subject was more inclined to remember that person from the original group. This relates back to the Depth of Processing model because it showing by using more detail, information can be processed more deeply. This experiment as well supports the depth of processing model because it shows that when a person has to think more and respond to a much deeper question, they are more likely to remember. The shallower the depth at which the information is processed the more likely a person is to forget the information. When information is
Monday, March 16, 2020
Progressivism in American History The progressives were reformers who initiated a progressive movement in American society in order to eliminate the evils that faced it during industrialization era (West Schambra, 2007). This group initiated the movement during 19th century and went on until the early phase of 20th Century (Sage, 2010).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Progressivism in American History specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These reformers aimed at improving the social, economic, political and cultural aspects of American society. The movement came into existence due to rapid changes that had been accelerated by industrial growth and rise of capitalism in America. The proponents of progressivism aimed at modifying society to adopt a new system that would be compatible with industrial era. It is evident that there were myriad of proponents of the movement. Besides, majority of the progressives were natives who were mainly composed of secret balloters, pacifists, workersÃ¢â¬â¢ advocates, muckrakers and child-welfare advocates (Sage, 2010). This paper discusses goals of the progressive movement and concerns over the problems that faced political and economic activities in America during the time period between 19th and 20th century. Who were the progressives (name at least four and explain their goals and concerns) and what did they achieve? Prominent representatives of progressivism included Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Merriam, Frank Wright and Sinclair Upton (Sage, 2010). These reformists had numerous goals of transforming society from the ancient conventional principles of governance into modern way of doing things. Intellectuals and reformers were in haste to advocate for social welfare which entailed equal employment opportunities and better working conditions. This occurred during the eve of Cold War where more social reformists were advocating for protection of prisoners and people with disabilities (W est Schambra, 2007). Moreover, the reformers advocated for abolition of tribulations like slave trade, racial injustices and child labor. During the second wave of progressivism, the reformers aimed at reconstructing society in order to guarantee rights of women. In line with this, the movement aimed at eradicating social Darwinism. This would ensure that the rich and poor people would assume equal positions in society (Sage, 2010). Politically, the reformers targeted at eliminating corruption and unjustified influence in governance. Economically, there was relentless struggle to eliminate unfair trade and the government was obliged to control all economic concerns to promote justice. Successfully, the progressives made lot of achievements that changed the countenance of American society.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, they were able to eradicate hazar dous working conditions, child labor, slave trade and racial injustices. Politically, corruption was decimated with the emergence of strong local government officials thus eliminating fraudulent mayoral schemes (West Schambra, 2007). What were the main concerns of the progressives over the corruption in economic activities and political activities and how were they interconnected? It is apparent that although the progressives had different concerns for the society on how to eliminate economic and political problems, at times, their motives were interrelated. For instance, there was concern over suffrage whereby only the whites had mandate to vote (Sage, 2010). This impacted negatively on the economic and political life of the minor natives in America (West Schambra, 2007). A concern for prohibition of drugs and liquors was meant to improve the social framework of the society thus reflecting positively to economic development and politics. There was also concern over political refo rms in which natives were allowed to make initiatives for themselves. This would ensure that the government did not curtail their economic and political freedom. Besides, there were anti-monopoly reforms to eliminate competitive market prices and profits (Sage, 2010). In an economic perspective, this was perceived as threat to big businesses in the sense that uncontrolled market forces were unfair even to consumers. To emphasize on the afoprementioned concerns, their eradication highly contributed to both economic and political welfare of the state (West Schambra, 2007). Conclusion To recap it all, it is imperative to reiterate that industrial developments that were witnessed in 19th century fueled the rise of progressivism. In a more vigorous manner, the reformers in the movement set their goals and concerns on self-interests. This resulted into numerous groups participating in the movement such as businessmen, anti-racists, workers, child advocators and anti-liquors. Significantl y, major representatives had different motives though in few instances they shared common views. Moreover, there was intense transformation of the American society whereby the achievements made impacted positively to the economic, political, social and cultural phases. These achievements included eradication of racism, child labor, slavery, poor working conditions and social Darwinism.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Progressivism in American History specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Sage, J. (2010). The Progressive Era: The Great Age of Reform. Web. West, T. Schambra, W. (2007). The Progressive Movement and the Transformation of American Politic. Web.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
A Single Needle; Single Handily Changing the Game Essay ? AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Pastime has been the true root of sports in the United States of America. Baseball blew up in the late 19th century towards the end of the American Civil War. Before there were TVÃ¢â¬â¢s, internet, or DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s, baseball is what kids did for fun. It became the thing to do if you were a white male going into the 20th century, and that was just the beginning of a long bittersweet road of the game of baseball. Up until the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s many greats had walked in between the lines showing off their pure god given talent, then an era came along that makes every baseball fan cringe, the Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids Era.Ã¢â¬ Steroids started to spread throughout the league like wildfire, and sadly no one was doing anything about it. The only thing administration, owners, authorities, and fans had were suspicion no one knew for sure if these record breaking seasons were real or all just a fluke. The greats like Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, Willie Mays, Lou Gehrig, and Ted Williams all have been being surpassed in the record books by Jose Canseco, Barry Bonds, Roger Clemens, Alex Rodriguez, Mark McGuire, and plenty more players due to the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs. The use of illegal Steroids in baseball has single handily degraded and disgraced the great game that once was proud to be known as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Pastime. The man who started it all and really brought Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDÃ¢â¬â¢s) to the baseball scene in the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s was Oakland Athletics outfielder, Jose Canseco. Once Canseco starting showing his teammates how influential these drugs were to their performance through his own personal achievements it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before a large amount of players were using PEDs. Canseco states in his book, Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant Ã¢â¬ËRoids, Smash Hits, and How Baseball Got Big that, Ã¢â¬Å"About 85% of Major Leaguers have used itÃ¢â¬ (Canseco). The MLB rarely, if at all tested for steroids during this time of the Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids EraÃ¢â¬ and if they did there was no penalty for testing positive. At the time it was virtually a win win for the players, they could juice up, exceed the stats they could only dream about, and never get in trouble during the process. Performance Enhancing Drugs became an epidemic in the world of baseball, but not only was it enhancing players performance, it was enhancing every aspect of revenue a ball club could ever imagine. The Record books were once again open and ready for business. Athletes such as Barry Bonds, Jose Canseco, Mark McGuire, and so forth were smashing homeruns and going up on the charts little by little for the all time homerun record holder, Hank Aaron. This excitement on the field attracted more fans through these steroid years than baseball had ever seen, and when there are fans there is money, and when there is money there is no concern. The Major League of Baseball had been oblivious to the illegal use of Steroids over the years. Until 2002 there were no penalties for testing positive for PEDs. The new rules stated, Ã¢â¬Å"A first time offense would only result in treatment for the playerÃ¢â¬ (Baseball-Almanac). Not one player was sentenced to any suspensions for this crime, until the Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative (BALCO) steroid scandal came to light, and brought out many of the All-Stars of the MLB to the top of the list. Victor Cante the founder of BALCO was a god to the sports world. He was the guy that not only supplied athletes wit h their steroids, but also had ways to cheat the tests so they could come up clean. Testing companies such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the U.S Anti Doping-Agency (USADA) are always trying to improve the efficiency of the tests to make cheating near impossible if not totally full proof, but as those agencies are working to stop the cheaters workers at BALCO labs are finding ways once again come up with a new way to slide by the new and improved tests on the market (Quinn). So in 2005 The MLB created a new testing policy that was accepted by the players and owners that said, Ã¢â¬Å"The first positive test will result in a suspension of up to ten days. The second positive test will result in a suspension of thirty days. The third positive test will result in a suspension of sixty days. The fourth positive test will result in a suspension of one full year. Finally, the fifth positive test will result in a penalty at the discretion of the Commissioner of Major League Baseball. Players will be tested at least once per year, with a chance that several players can be tested numerous times per yearÃ¢â¬ (Baseball-Almanac). That wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the last adjustment Bud Selig, the Commissioner of the Major League of Baseball, was going to make to the steroid testing policy. On December 13, 2007, Greg Mitchell, an investigator who was appointed by Bud Selig in 2006 to investigate the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs in the MLB, presented a 409 page report to Selig showing his investigation and revealing 89 alleged players who used steroids during their career (Healey). Once Bud Selig had been shown the report, his 3rd written drug testing policy came in to play which was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Three strikes and youÃ¢â¬â¢re out approachÃ¢â¬ (Verhaeghe). This final policy stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"The first positive test would result in a fifty game suspension. The second positive test would result in a one-hundred game suspension. Finally, the third positive test would result in a lifetime suspension from Major League BaseballÃ¢â¬ (Baseball Almanac). Bud Selig and the rest of the administration inside of the Major League of Baseball had finally seen the light, and properly taken action on how to cut down the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs throughout the MLB. Once the Ã¢â¬Å"Mitchell ReportÃ¢â¬ was released many super stars and role models for fans all around the world were printed in black under the category of the illegal use of steroids throughout their career. The most popular player named in the Mitchell Report due to his court and trial issues would have to be 7 time Cy Young winner, Roger Clemens. Once he saw that his name had been brought to light in the report he went to Capitol Hill to clear his name off the list that he felt he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be on. Little did he know that when made the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"I appreciate the opportunity to tell this Committee and the public-under oath-what I have been saying all along: I have never used steroids, human growth hormone [HGH], or any other type of illegal performance enhancing drugs. I think these types of drugs should play no role in athletics at any level, and I fully support Senator MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusions that steroids have no place in baseball. However, I take great issue with the reportÃ¢â¬â¢s allegation that I used these substances. Let me be clear again: I did not.Ã¢â¬ (Healey) That he was entering a world of charges when committing perjury in a court of law. Many of the players claimed their innocence like Clemens did, but in the end they all served the types of charges. The original group of all time Baseball greats like Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, Cy young, etc. set a high standard for the Players after them to strive for and gave them something to achieve. Never in their minds would they of thought that the game of baseball would have turned out the way it is today. These modern day All-stars who cheated and used Performance Enhancing Drugs for a shortcut just to go ahead of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s hard work and love for the game as well to achieve their personal and selfish desires should be punished and have their awards and accolades stripped from them and taken out of the record books as if they were never there to begin with. The use of Performance Enhancing Drugs has put a permanent stain on the name of Baseball and what it is truly about. Bud Selig and the Major league of Baseball has come a long way regarding minimizing the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs by enforcing harsher penalties and consequences for testing Positive for steroids. As the years have gone by thanks to the leagues stricter policies on testing positive for PEDs the amount of players getting suspended for steroid use has decreased on a year to year basis. The Major League of Baseball will never be able to completely take Performance Enhancing Drugs out of the game, but with the right consequences, and appropriate policies they will be able continue to keep the use of Steroids at a very low rate and never re-enter the once dreaded time known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids EraÃ¢â¬ ever again. Healey, Daniel. Ã¢â¬Å"FALL OF THE ROCKET: STEROIDS IN BASEBALL AND THE CASE AGAINEST ROGER CLEMENS.Ã¢â¬ Marquette Sports Law Review 19.1 (September 2008): SPORTDiscus. Web. 8 November 2011. Roger Ã¢â¬Å"The RocketÃ¢â¬ Clemens is known to be one of the best of all-time to step on the rubber in the game of Major League Baseball. The Seven-time Cy Young winner was ultimately unstoppable in the last half of his career. He was just another great phenom in the baseball world until December 13, 2007 when the Ã¢â¬Å"Mitchell ReportÃ¢â¬ was released, revealing a 409-page report that was sent to the commissioner of baseball (Bud Selig) that investigated the illegal use of steroids and Performance Enhancing Drugs used by players in Major League Baseball. There were over 80 players put on this report, but the one who stood out the most was Roger Clemens himself. On February 13th 2008 he went to Capitol Hill to argue the allegations against him saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I appreciate the opportunity to tell this Committee and the public-under oath-what I have been saying all along: I have never used steroids, human growth hormone [HGH], or any other type of illegal performance enhancing drugs. I think these types of drugs should play no role in athletics at any level, and I fully support Senator MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusions that Steroids have no place in baseball. However, I take great issue with the reportÃ¢â¬â¢s allegation that I used these substances. Let me be clear again: I did not.Ã¢â¬ Once Clemens had stated that it put a rather large target on his back not only by investigators but also the judicial system. They were trying to get him to admit using illegal steroids, but now as well they were going after him on counts of perjury. After 2 years of gathering enough evidence and testimonies on August 19, 2010 a Federal Grand Jury Indicted Roger Clemens on six counts, one count of obstruction of congress, three counts of false statements, and two counts of perjury. On July 13, 2011 ClemensÃ¢â¬â¢ first trial began, but on the second day the judge ruled a mistrial due to prosecutorial misconduct. For now Roger Clemens is a free man, but legal sources say that he will be retried. I will be using the Ã¢â¬Å"Mitchell ReportÃ¢â¬ and the Roger Clemens trial to portray that not only is the use of steroids extremely risky and unhealthy but also that itÃ¢â¬â¢s against the law and you will get caught one way or another. 1991 to 2002 was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Steroid EraÃ¢â¬ in professional baseball. Over those years particularly in 1995 after the cancellation of the 1994 playoffs and World Series the statistics of a majority of the players skyrocketed, which in retrospect played a huge role in filling the empty seats back up after the 1994 strike. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be explaining that up until to this point in time the MLB did not have strict regulations on testing for the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) Kuenster, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Major League Player Records Dishonored by Steroid Users.Ã¢â¬ Baseball Digest. 62.2 (March 2008): SPORTDiscus. Web. 8 November 2011. John Kuenster touches on a very valuable subject when it comes to records, and honors given in the MLB. Back in early in mid 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s the greats of the game like, Babe Ruth, Ted Williams, Hank Aaron, Joe DiMaggio, Bob Feller, and Ernie Banks. They all set legitimate records that should never be shadowed by the players who eventually broke them. These few players all had something in common. That was hard work and love for the game. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use PEDs to up there stats or to get to a higher number in a certain category. These historic greats earned their records off pure talent that was god given and worked hard to mature. The greats of our time such as, Barry Bonds, Roger Clemens, Alex Rodriguez, or Mark McGwire also hold records like men mentioned earlier. The only difference between the past greats and the current greats is that these new all-stars were accused of using Steroids to achieve their records. Not only are the players the ones to blame for the whole Ã¢â¬Å"Steroid Era.Ã¢â¬ Stricter steps should have been taken from the get go through the league to enforce steroid testing to ensure the safety and fair play in professional play of baseball before the use of steroids spread like wildfire through the MLB. Will records and awards be stripped from players whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve been tested positive for performing enhancing drugs? We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know for now, but who knows what the future holds. This article about dishonoring the awards given to players who have achieved them unfairly will allow me to voice my opinion on the topic of record breakers involving steroids. I personally am against the use of steroids solely because all it does it degrade the great game of baseball. Even though these cheaters didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use PEDs their whole career and achieved some of their record off pure talent doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the fact they broke the rules that is stated in the contract thatÃ¢â¬â¢s signed by every professional player. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not fair that historyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest baseball players prior to the steroid era should be passed up in the record books by players that made themselves better by an illegal drug. Not only is it a disgrace to the violators name, but more importantly itÃ¢â¬â¢s a disgrace to the game of baseball. Rutecki, Jared. Ã¢â¬Å"A Study of Media Impact on Public Opinion Regarding Performance Enhancement in Major League Baseball.Ã¢â¬ Open Sports Sciences Journal 3 (2010): SPORTSDiscus. Web. 8 November 2011. A chart in the article, A study of Media Impact on Public Opinion Regarding Performance Enhancement in Major League Baseball shows the percent of the coverage on specific sports and PEDs through 1968 to 2006 in Sports Illustrated, Newsweek, and Time. Baseball ranks number one in all 3 magazines with 43 percent, 39 percent, and 39 percent. Coming in second was football with a significant lower percent of 19, 14, and 15. Over the yearÃ¢â¬â¢s magazine articles about PEDs have increased by a huge amount due to the popularity in steroid use among professional athletes. With the widespread use of steroids in sports particularly baseball, itÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent that the talk of it in magazines and media in general has shot up too. When something isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a public issue the media obviously isnÃ¢â¬â¢t interested in it which is why steroids in the earlier years werenÃ¢â¬â¢t written and talked about much. When the Ã¢â¬Å"Steroid EraÃ¢â¬ came into play thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the number of articles in magazines skyrocketed year by year and it all of sudden became a huge topic in our society. I will also be touching on the fact that even when people knew that steroids were an issue media didnÃ¢â¬â¢t start writing about it like crazy until the 104 MLB players tested positive for PEDs in 2003. From that year on the number of articles per year were above 49. The media writes what sells and in this day and age information and insider news about the world of baseball and steroids will always sell. Solberg, Joe. Ã¢â¬Å"Performance-Enhancing Drug Use in Baseball: The Impact of Culture.Ã¢â¬ Ethics and Behavior 21 (April 2011): 91-102. PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s Index. Web. 8 November 2011. Joe Solberg explains that once the steroid era of baseball blew up and became steady that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t out of the norm anymore, it became part of the culture. Once everyone was doing it the person below them had to use PEDs in order to get to the next level. The use of Steroids is a ladder that started in the proÃ¢â¬â¢s and worked its way down to the minors. Major League Contracts are more than less based off offensive performance rather than defensive performance. To be more specific on offensive performance homeruns are what really can land you a big money contract. Over the years the biggest category that PEDs have helped is homeruns. Of course players want a lot of money, and in order to get that money is to hit homeruns, and in order to increase the amount of homeruns is to take performance enhancing drugs. Players will do what they have to do in order to make the money that they are satisfied with, and as a result for most players it is to partake in using steroids to increase their status as an all-star. The information I gathered in this article will help me explain the playerÃ¢â¬â¢s motives for wanting to use PEDs. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only used just to break records and be known as an all-star even though that is a plus that comes with it, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the fact that if the person above you is using these substances then in order for you to excel above him and potentially take his spot you almost feel obligated to take PEDs as well. It was once a bad thing to be associated with the group known to take steroids back when it was a rare thing to do. Now days itÃ¢â¬â¢s such a common thing to partake in its part of the culture, itÃ¢â¬â¢s fairly normal in the MLB now to use PEDs. Sommers, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"The Changing Hitting Performance Profile in Major League Baseball, 1966-2006.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Sports Economics 9.4 (August 2008) SPORTSDiscus. Web. 8 November 2011. Paul Sommers showed charts over the decades of average years played by an average starter in the pros. It went from 5.2 years in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s to 6 in a half years in 2006. That shows that the use of steroids in the MLB increased a playerÃ¢â¬â¢s career by almost 2 years. He also explains that the use of PEDs in baseball lets you peak at a higher level of skill. A persons overall skill level will increase by a big number while using steroids. Someone hitting .267 without the use of steroids could jump anywhere from a .324 to .378 average depending on the person. With all the statistics shown throughout the article itÃ¢â¬â¢s proven that Performance enhancing drugs increase a playerÃ¢â¬â¢s batting average, peak, years played, MPH, and overall skill level. Before the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s after a playerÃ¢â¬â¢s peak their batting average tended to decline steadily due to falling off from their prime, but after the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s a large amount of players started to excel past their peak year and raise their batting averages past their prime which was unusual. As we know now the reason for that was the use of PEDs. After 2004 the statistics seemed to start trending again like the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s due to the random and mandatory drug tests which disabled the players to partake in using Anabolic Steroids of HGH. I will be using this information to show how all PEDs have been proven in many to not only better athletes, but make them more durable and tack on extra years of successful productivity past their prime. PEDs arenÃ¢â¬â¢t physically making them younger, but they sure are making them produce younger aged stats in a past prime aged body. Stone, Brad. Ã¢â¬Å"Another Poison PillÃ¢â¬ Newsweek 146.7 (August 15 2005): Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 November 2011. The MLB is by far the top sport when it comes to the abuse of Performance Enhancing Drugs, but yet it holds the weakest punishment in the sports world for testing positive. Rafael Palmeiro in 2008 tested positive for Performance Enhancing Drugs in early August of 2008 just months after he testified before a U.S congressional committee stating that he had never used PEDs in his life. Not only did he test positive for steroids, he failed the test after lying under oath in a court of law, and all he was punished with through the MLB was a 10-day suspension and a $164,000 fine. Due to the particular steroid Palmeiro took, Stanozonol, which travels through your digestive system within 2 weeks, makes it hard for the court to prove that Palmeiro was lying when he testified. Baseball wants to stop the abuse of Steroids, but at the same time it seems like all these players that test positive these substances just get slaps on the wrist and are told not to do it again. If you want a problem to come to a halt you have to go the extra distance in order to get the results youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for. PEDs have been persistent in the MLB for decades now; telling a player to stop will ultimately not stop them. There needs to be an ultimatum put into action to make the abusers consider that these PEDs arenÃ¢â¬â¢t worth the loss of their career. Every other sport that has extremely harsh penalties if tested positive for PEDs donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a very high percent of positive tests because the players donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to take the risk to put their career on the line. In the MLBs case they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t putting a severe enough consequence for the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs. My main point IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be using from this article is that if you want the use of PEDs to lower then you have to put consequences that the players donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to deal with out there in order to produce more negative resulting drug tests. Quinn, Tom Ã¢â¬Å"BASEBALLÃ¢â¬â¢S STEROID ERA.Ã¢â¬ MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fitness 23. (August 2007): SPORTSDiscus. Web. 8 November 2011 Throughout the history of baseball testing for either steroids or street drugs really hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been a big part of the games policy. PlayerÃ¢â¬â¢s played the game and what they did off the field was their own business. Once the early 80Ã¢â¬â¢s hit, and PEDs came on the scene the use of them among players got out of hand. It became an almost regular regime for a majority of the MLB. Tests were eventually being given, but that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop the players. When thereÃ¢â¬â¢s motive to do illegal substances thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always the backup plan to keep these athletes out of trouble. There were plenty of ways to come up clean on a test, and when the testers would find a way to stop it, Victor Cante and his crew at BALCO labs would just simply find another way to cheat. Even when the few unlucky playersÃ¢â¬â¢ get caught all they have to do is admit it and simply explain they were told it was something else. For Example, Barry Bonds, when he spoke in front of the BALCO grand jury he came clean about all the PEDs he had taken, but the catch was he stated that he was oblivious to what he was actually using. People of this stature will make their illegal decisions, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t think they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have all the answers for when the going gets tough. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be using QuinnÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"BASEBALL STEROIDS ERAÃ¢â¬ to inform how little baseball can really do to not only catch these users, but to actually put a stop to the Performance Enhancing Drugs. If not cheating tests to save their own assÃ¢â¬â¢ these professional athletes will just find a perfect window of time to where they know they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tested in the offseason to fit in a couple cycles here and there to maintain the gains through using PEDs. Testing companies such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the U.S Anti Doping-Agency (USADA) will never stop trying to improve the efficiency of the tests to make cheating near impossible if not totally full proof, but as those agencies are working to stop the cheaters donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the cheaters at BALCO labs arenÃ¢â¬â¢t finding ways to break through and find loop holes in their tests. Verhaeghe, Dan. Ã¢â¬Å"Bud Selig Lays Down the Hammer on Performance Enhancing DrugsÃ¢â¬ . Bleacher Report. (January 2008): Web. 30 November 2011 A Single Needle; Single Handily Changing the Game. (2017, Aug 13).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Human Resources - Research Paper Example The needs and demands of the working women differ from those of the male workers because of such issues. The implication of these issues of the working women upon the managers is to make specific policies for them so that the individualistic and collective needs of the working women are addressed and their productivity is maximized. One of the most fundamental challenges faced by the working women is the need to strike a balance between the work life and the personal life. According to the gender-based roles and responsibilities assigned to the women by the society and the culture, women have the added responsibility of managing their homes. Traditionally, men are expected to be the bread-earners for the families whereas women are expected to manage the money and take care of the family and the home. However, in the present age, as the cost of living has increased, more and more women feel intrinsically motivated and obliged to work to help their husbands in earning money, but they f ace the challenge of achieving this without compromising upon their fundamental responsibility of managing their homes and looking after their families. ... It so happens particularly in the conservative societies in which the society expects and obliges both men and women to consider their roles and responsibilities most important and superior to all other roles and responsibilities. In addition to these problems, the extreme sensitivity and delicacy of women is a negative factor as far as work is concerned. When something goes wrong at home, women workers remain preoccupied with the stress all day long which declines their efficiency and productivity in the workplace. It is hard for women workers to keep their personal life and work life separate. Likewise, when something bad happens at the workplace, e.g. insult from a senior or sexual harassment by a colleague, their personal life is also disturbed. In short, it is difficult for the women workers to balance their personal life and work life and the two also intertwine. While these problems overall declines the productivity of the women workers, they also make the women workers quite untrustworthy as they can break off any time. Women workers cannot be trusted to be permanent as they can leave the job at any time as a result of the pressure upon them by their families. Pregnancy is another big issue faced by the women workers as well as the managers. During pregnancy, women are recommended bed-rest and the pressure upon them by their families to leave work for the sake of work also increases. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2005, 4,449 pregnancy discrimination charges were filed with the commission or state and local employment agencies around the country. Half were related to unlawful dismissals either during a pregnancy or immediately after returning from maternity leaveÃ¢â¬ (Paul). Pregnancy